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Liquid Crystal Material


The liquid crystal material is a kind of polymer material. Because of its special physical, chemical and optical properties, it has been widely used in light and thin display technology since the middle of the 20th century. Liquid crystal material is liquid and has the anisotropy of crystal. The role of liquid crystal materials in the structure of a liquid crystal flat display is quite important. Although there are tens of thousands of species, there are only a few more than a dozen.

Classification of liquid crystal materials

According to the conditions of liquid crystal formation, it can be divided into thermotropic liquid crystal and lyotropic liquid crystal. The phase classification can be divided into nematic, near crystal and chiral phase.
  • Lyotropic liquid crystals, which place some organic compounds in a certain solvent, they are called lyotropic liquid crystals because the solvent destroys the crystal lattice. For example, simple fatty acid salts, ionic and nonionic surfactants, etc. Lyotropic liquid crystals are widely used in nature and living organisms, which are closely related to life but have not been used in the display.
  • Thermotropic liquid crystal, the thermotropic liquid crystal is the liquid crystal phase which is due to the change of temperature. At low temperatures, it is a crystal structure, and at high temperature, it becomes a liquid, where the temperature is marked with the melting point (TM) and the clear point (TC). The liquid crystal single molecule has its own melting point and clear point, and the intermediate temperature is in the form of liquid crystal. At present, the liquid crystal materials used for display are basically thermotropic liquid crystals. In thermotropic liquid crystals, they are divided into three major categories based on the molecular structure of liquid crystals: SMECTIC, NEMATIC and CHOLESTERIC.
At present, all kinds of liquid crystal materials are basically used for development. A variety of nematic liquid crystal, polymer dispersed liquid crystal, double (multi) stable liquid crystal, ferroelectric liquid crystal, and antiferroelectric liquid crystal display have been developed. In the liquid crystal display, the nematic liquid crystal display is the most successful development, the largest market occupancy, and the fastest development. According to the liquid crystal display mode, the common nematic displays include TN (twisted nematic) mode, HTN (high twisted nematic mode), STN (super twisted nematic mode) and TFT (thin film transistor) mode.

Synthesis of liquid crystal materials

  • The chemical stability and service life of photosynthetic heat are longer
  • Wide range of temperature areas can be used for different low temperatures or high temperatures
  • The viscosity of liquid crystal is low and easy to generate high-speed response speed
  • It is suitable for low voltage operation
  • The variability of complex refractive index can effectively increase its contrast
  • The coordination of molecules and the high degree of order effectively increase their contrast

Application of liquid crystal materials

  • TN: calculator, electronic watch, instrument, watch dial, telephone, fax machine, household appliances
  • HTN: game machine, rice cooker, early education machine, vehicle-mounted system
  • STN: mobile phone, MP4, MP3, electronic dictionary
  • TFT: TV, computer, mobile phone
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