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Integrated circuit is generally divided into 74 series Digital Integrated Circuits, Flash, Memory, Optical Couplers, Operational Amplifiers, Power Switch Ics, Driver Ics , CD40 series Digital Integrated Circuits, and Clock & Calculator ICs. Look up different ic chips from UTSOURCE!
Integrated circuit chips definition
Integrated circuit is a
micro electronic device or component. It uses a certain process to connect transistors, diodes, resistors, capacitors and inductors and other components and wiring needed in a circuit, and then make them on a small block or several small semiconductor wafers or dielectric substrates. It is then encapsulated in a tube shell to become a
micro structure with the function of the required circuit. All of the components have been structured as a whole, in this way, the volume of the whole circuit is greatly reduced, and the number of lead and welding points is greatly reduced. Thus, the electronic components have taken a great step towards miniaturization, low power consumption
and high reliability. It is expressed in the circuit with the letter "IC" (also useful as a word symbol "N").
Integrated circuit is a micro electronic device or component. It uses a certain process to connect transistors, diodes, resistors, capacitors and inductors and other components and wiring needed in a circuit, and then make them on a small block or several small semiconductor wafers or dielectric substrates. It is then encapsulated in a tube shell to become a micro structure with the function of the required circuit. All of the components have been structured as a whole, in this way, the volume of the whole circuit is greatly reduced, and the number of lead and welding points is greatly reduced. Thus, the electronic components have taken a great step towards miniaturization, low power consumption and high reliability. It is expressed in the circuit with the letter "IC" (also useful as a word symbol "N"). The inventor of the integrated circuit is Jack Kilby (based on the integrated circuit of germanium (Ge)) and Robert Noith (Si) integrated circuit. Most of today's semiconductor industry is based on silicon - based integrated circuits.
The integrated circuit has played a very important role in all walks of life and is the cornerstone of modern information society. The meaning of the integrated circuit is far beyond the definition of its birth. But the most central part of it, still hasn't changed, that's integration, the various disciplines derived from it are mainly about "integration", "how to integrate" and "how to deal with the advantages and disadvantages of integration". The silicon integrated circuit is the mainstream, which is to put all the components of the circuit that implements some kind of function on a piece of silicon, and the whole thing is called an integrated circuit. For "integration", we can imagine that the house we live in might be easier to understand: many people lived in rural houses when they were young. At that time, the main body of the house may be three or two bungalows, with the function of the bedroom, and the small yard at the door, with a table and chairs, as the living room, next to it, there is a small house of smoke, which is the kitchen, which has unique functions. It needs to be isolated, and it is possible to walk more than a dozen meters behind the house. Later, in the city, or in rural urbanization, everyone lived in a building or a suite, with a living room, a bedroom, a kitchen, a bathroom, a balcony, perhaps only a few dozen square meter, but have the various function that the rural house that covers a few hundred square meter already, this is integration.
The integrated circuit has the advantages of small volume, light weight, low lead and welding points, long life, high reliability and good performance. At the same time, it has low cost and is convenient for mass production. It has been widely used in the fields of engineering and civil electronic devices such as radio, television and computer. It is also widely used in military, communication and remote control. With an integrated circuit to assemble electronic equipment, the assembly density of the device can be tens to thousands of times higher than that of the transistor, and the stable working time of the equipment can be greatly improved.
IC Chips Classification
By functional structure
According to its function and structure, it can be divided into three categories: analog integrated circuit, digital integrated circuit, digital integrated circuit and digital / analoghybrid integrated circuit. Analog integrated circuits, also known as linear circuits, are used to generate, amplify and process analog signals (signals that vary with time). Digital integrated circuits are used to generate, amplify, and process various digital signals (signals that are discretized in time and amplitude).
By production process
The integrated circuit can be divided into semiconductor integrated circuits and film integrated circuits according to the production process.
The film integrated circuit is also classified as thick film integrated circuit and thin film integrated circuit.
By integrated circuit height
SSIC (Small Scale Integrated circuits): the logic gate is less than 10 or the transistors is less than 100.
MSIC (Medium Scale Integrated circuits): the logic gate between 11 and 100, or the transistors is between 101 and 1000.
LSIC (Large Scale Integrated circuits): the logic gate between 101 and 1000, or the transistors is between 1001 and 10000.
VLSIC (Very Large Scale Integrated circuits): the logic gate between 1001 and 10000, or the transistors is between 10001 and 100000.
ULSIC (Ultra Large Scale Integrated circuits): the logic gate between 10001 and 100000, or the transistors is between 1000001 and 1000000.
GSIC (Giga Scale Integration): the logic gate between 100001 and 1000000, or the transistors is between 10000001 and 100000000.
By different types of electrical conductivity
Integrated circuits can be divided into bipolar integrated circuits and unipolar integrated circuits according to the types of electrical conduction. They are digital integrated circuits. The fabrication process of the bipolar integrated circuit is complex and the power consumption is large. The integrated circuit has the types of TTL, ECL, HTL, LST-TL, STTL and so on. Unipolar IC has simple fabrication process and low power consumption. It is easy to make large scale integrated circuits, and the integrated circuit of representative is CMOS, NMOS, PMOS and so on.
Integrated circuits can be divided into TV sets with integrated circuits, audio integrated circuits, DVD players with integrated circuits, video recorders with integrated circuits, and computers (microcomputers) with integrated circuits, electronic keyboard integrated circuit, integrated circuit, camera integrated circuit, remote control integrated circuit, language integrated circuit, alarm device with integrated circuit and various special integrated circuits. The integrated circuit can be also divided into standard general integrated circuit and special integrated circuit according to the application domain.
The integrated circuit can be divided into round (metal shell transistor encapsulation type, which is generally suitable for high power), flat type (good stability, small volume) and double - row straight - insert.
IC Chips Technology
Monolithic integrated circuits and thin film and thick film integrated circuits have their own characteristics, which can be complementary to each other. The number of general and standard circuits is large, and monolithic integrated circuits can be used. Small or non-standard circuits are needed. Generally, hybrid process is adopted, that is, using standardized monolithic integrated circuits and active and passive integrated circuits. Thick film and thin film integrated circuits are intersecting in some applications. The process equipment used in the thick film process is simple, the circuit design is flexible, the production cycle is short, and the heat dissipation is good. So it is widely used in the circuits with high voltage, high power and passive components, which are not too strict. In addition, because thick film circuit is easy to realize multilayer wiring in process manufacturing, it can assemble large scale integrated circuit chip into super large scale integrated circuit, which is more complex than that of monolithic integrated circuit. The single function or multi-functional monolithic integrated circuit chips can also be assembled into multi-functional components or even small whole machines.
In addition to higher integration, monolithic integrated circuits are developing towards high power, linear, high frequency circuits and analog circuits. However, in the field of microwave integrated circuits and high power integrated circuits, the film and thick film hybrid integrated circuits are also superior. In the specific selection, all kinds of monolithic integrated circuits are often combined with thick film and thin film integrated processes. In particular, the precision resistance network and the resistive capacitance network substrate are attached to the substrate assembled by the thick film resistor and the guide band, and are packed into a complex and complete circuit. If necessary, it can even be fitted with a few super-miniature components, components or the whole machine.
Monolithic integrated circuit technology
By making use of a complete set of planar technology, such as lapping, polishing, oxidation, diffusion, photolithography, epitaxial growth and evaporation, we can manufacture transistors, diodes, resistors and capacitors on a small piece of silicon wafer. And a certain isolation technology is used to separate the electrical properties from each other. Then the aluminum layer is evaporated on the silicon wafer and lithography technology is used to interconnect the graphics, so that components can be interconnected into complete circuits as required and made into semiconductor monolithic integrated circuits. With the development of monolithic integrated circuits from small and medium scale to large scale and super large scale integrated circuits, plane technology has also been developed. For example, diffusion doping is used to replace the ion implantation doping process. The conventional lithography of ultraviolet light has developed to a complete set of micro processing technologies, such as electron beam lithography, plasma etching, and reaction ion milling. Ultrahigh vacuum molecular beam epitaxy technology is used for the epitaxial growth. The polycrystalline silicon, silicon dioxide and surface passivation films were made by chemical vapor deposition. Besides the use of aluminum or gold, chemical thin film and noble metal silicide film as well as multilayer interconnection structure are applied in interconnect fine line.
Thin film integrated circuit technology
The interconnects of transistors, diodes, resistors, capacitors and inductors and interconnections between them are all made of metal, semiconductor, metal oxide, metal mixed phase, alloy or insulating dielectric film with a thickness of less than 1 microns. It is made up of vacuum evaporation process, sputtering process and electroplating process. The integrated circuit made of this process is called the film integrated circuit. The transistors in the thin film integrated circuit are fabricated by thin film technology. The material structure has two forms: (1) thin film field effect cadmium sulfide and cadmium selenide transistors, and tellurium, indium, arsenic, nickel oxide and other materials can be used to make transistors. (2) thin film thermal electronic amplifier. The poor reliability of the thin film transistors can not be compared with the transistors made by the silicon plane process. Therefore, the circuit composed entirely of thin films has no universal practical value.
The practical application of the film integrated circuits is a hybrid process. It is to use thin film technology to prepare interconnects between passive components and circuit elements on glass, glass ceramics, glaze or polished alumina ceramic substrate. A complete circuit is assembled by hot pressing welding, ultrasonic welding, beam lead wire or bump inversion welding of the chips of active devices such as integrated circuits, transistors and diodes and the power resistors, capacitors, inductors, and so on, which are inconvenient for thin film process.
Thick film integrated circuit technology
The resistance, medium and conductor coatings are deposited on alumina, beryllium oxide or silicon carbide substrate by screen printing process. The deposition process is to use a mesh screen to make all kinds of membrane patterns. This kind of pattern is made of photographic method, where the paint is not deposited, the mesh is blocked with latex. The aluminum oxide substrate has been cleaned and printed conductive coating, which is made into the inner connection wire, the resistance terminal welding zone, the chip adhesion area, the electrode of the capacitor and the conductor film. Between 750 ~ 950 ℃ after drying, the temperature of the roasting forming, and then they evaporate cement, sintering conductor material, then the resistance, capacitance, jumper, insulator and color seal are made by printing and sintering process. With low co-fusion welding, reflow soldering, low melting point resolder or beam lead, etc. The thick film circuit is then mounted on a burnt substrate and welded onto the lead wire. The film thickness of thick film circuit is generally 7 ~ 40 micron. It is convenient to fabricate multi-layer wiring process with thick film process, and the multi-layer process compatibility is good, which can greatly improve the assembly density of the secondary integration. In addition, plasma spraying, flame spraying, printing process and so on are new thick film technology. Similar to the thin film integrated circuit, thick film integrated circuit is not practical because of thick film transistor.
IC Chips Marks Meaning
1. BGA (ball grid array)
2. BQFP (quad flat package with bumper)
3. C－ (ceramic)
6. COB (chip on board)
7. DFP (dual flat package)
8. DIC (dual in-line ceramic package)
9. DIL (dual in-line)
10. DIP (dual in-line package)
11. DSO (dual small out-lint)
12. DICP (dual tape carrier package)
13. DIP (dual tape carrier package)
14. FP (flat package)
16. FQFP (fine pitch quad flat package)
17. CPAC (globe top pad array carrier)
18. CQFP (quad fiat package with guard ring)
19. H- (with heat sink)
20. pin grid array (surface mount type)
21. JLCC (J-leaded chip carrier)
22. LCC (Leadless chip carrier)
23. LGA (land grid array)
24. LOC (lead on chip)
25. LQFP (low profile quad flat package)
27. MCM (multi-chip module)
28. MFP (mini flat package)
29. MQFP (metric quad flat package)
30. MQUAD (metal quad)
31. MSP (mini square package)
32. OPMAC (over molded pad array carrier)
34. PAC (pad array carrier)
35. PCLP (printed circuit board leadless package)
36. PFPF (plastic flat package)
37. PGA (pin grid array)
38. piggy back
39. PLCC (plastic leaded chip carrier)
40. P－LCC (plastic teadless chip carrier)(plastic leaded chip currier)
41. QFH (quad flat high package)
42. QFI (quad flat I-leaded packgac)
43. QFJ (quad flat J-leaded package)
44. QFN (quad flat non-leaded package)
45. QFP (quad flat package)
46. QFP (FP)(QFP fine pitch)
47. QIC (quad in-line ceramic package)
48. QIP (quad in-line plastic package)
49. QTCP (quad tape carrier package)
51. QUIL (quad in-line)
52. QUIP (quad in-line package)
53. SDIP (shrink dual in-line package)
55. SIL (single in-line)
56. SIMM (single in-line memory module)
57. SIP (single in-line package)
58. SK－DIP (skinny dual in-line package)
59. SL－DIP (slim dual in-line package)
60. SMD (surface mount devices)
61. SOI (small out-line I-leaded package)
62. SOIC (small out-line integrated circuit)
63. SOJ (Small Out-Line J-Leaded Package)
64. SQL (Small Out-Line L-leaded package)
65. SONF (Small Out-Line Non-Fin)
66. SOP (small Out-Line package)
67. SOW (Small Outline Package (Wide-Jype)